A mammoth-sized find: how the local monument came to be

By Rachel Nelson
Interpretive Park Ranger, NPS; 
Waco Mammoth National Monument

Courtesy of Waco Mammoth National Monument and Dominick J. Cirincione

The year was 1978. Two teenage boys were hunting for arrowheads in a creek bed on the outskirts of Waco, Texas. While they were unsuccessful with their pursuit for Native American artifacts that day, their quest would not go unrewarded. They would uncover a mystery so huge, you might even refer to it as a mammoth-sized find that was the only one of its kind!

That’s the story of how Paul Barron and Eddie Bufkin, both of Waco, accidently found the first Columbian Mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) bone at the Waco Mammoth National Monument. Their good fortune led to a team of experts and volunteers from Baylor University to uncover what the National Park Service refers to as “the nation’s first and only discovery of a nursery heard of Pleistocene Mammoths.” So far, paleontologists have unearthed 24 Columbian mammoths, three camels, and a few other Ice Age creatures. 

The real mysteries lie in why these animals chose to inhabit this area and what happened to them. Was it the climate that attracted them? Was it the landscape? What did they eat and drink when they were here? And the biggest questions of all, how and why did they perish? Visitors can enjoy guided ranger-led tours to see “in situ” remains (fossils left where they were discovered) and form their own hypotheses that may remedy these questions. Rangers share information about when these animals were roaming around Central Texas and what Ice Age life was like for them. 

Excavation at the site commenced in 1978 and was put on hold in 2001. Leaders within the City of Waco, Waco Mammoth Foundation, and Baylor University recognized the importance of preservation for the site. The partners’ mission was to protect the area and the fossil remains so future generations can enjoy them too. A successful fundraising campaign resulted in the Dig Shelter opening to the public on December 5, 2009. It is only one of two climate-controlled dig sites in the United States. At the same time, the partners appealed to Congress to declare Waco Mammoth a unit within the National Park Service. Their efforts were denied twice, however, on July 10, 2015, President Barack Obama proclaimed the site as Waco Mammoth National Monument through the Antiquities Act. This designation provides the protections needed in order to continue the site’s education and preservation missions. 

Guests can participate in guided tours of the dig site that begin every 30 minutes and last 45 minutes to an hour in length.  No reservations are required and small tour fees do apply. Rangers lead visitors from the Welcome Center down a 300-yard paved path to the Dig Shelter. The tour path is 100% accessible without steep grades or stairs. Golf cart assistance is available if needed. 

The site also features a half mile nature trail, the Eagle Trail, a tenth of a mile Deer Loop trail, and a picnic area to enjoy lunch outside. Visitors often bring binoculars to spot birds and other wildlife while visiting the park. The young and young-at-heart engage in educational activities, including the Waco Mammoth Junior Ranger Program. Check out the calendar page for more information about programs and events.

Located just 7 miles northwest of downtown Waco, Texas, the site is easily accessed from I-35. While in town, be sure to visit the Mayborn Museum at Baylor University for more educational fun. Guests also often make a stop at Magnolia, owned by HGTV’s Fixer Upper stars Chip and Joanna Gaines. For directions and more information about the area, please visit our website and Waco Heart of Texas tourism. We look forward to your visit!